Transcranial Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance
Image fusion with Virtual Navigator
M. M. Laganà, M. G. Preti, L. Forzoni, S. D'Onofrio, S. De Beni, A.Barberio, P. Cecconi, G.Baselli (2013)

»The Virtual Navigator (VN) technology was used for the fusion of transcranial Ultrasound (US) and brain Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI), with a repeatability error under 0.1 cm. The superimposition of US to the previously acquired MRI volume consisted of external point-based registration, that was subsequently refined with image-based registration of internal brain structures. The common registration procedure with the usage of external fiducial markers acquired with the two modalities was improved using facial anatomical landmarks, with a reduction of the internal targeted structure residual shift (maximum 0.7 cm in the cranio-caudal direction).«

Physiologically increased venous flow velocities in the straight sinus assessed by transcranial duplex ultrasound
Schreiber SJ, Paul F, Wuerfel J, Valdueza JM, Nedelmann M, Doepp F (2012)

»Since the introduction of transcranial ultrasound, doppler- and duplexsonographic analysis of blood flow patterns has been described in a number of intracranial veins and sinuses. Normal values in the straight sinus (STS), basal vein of Rosenthal (BVR), Vein of Galen (VG), deep middle cerebral vein (DMCV), inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) and transverse sinus (TS) are low, compared to arterial flow. So far, the only reported exception has been the cavernous sinus inflow region (CSIF) with physiological velocites > 60cm/s (Table).«.


Virtual Navigator Tridimensional Panoramic Imaging in Transcranial Application (2012)
»Three-dimensional (3D) Panoramic ultrasound imaging is a Virtual Navigator option which allows the acquisition of ultrasound (US) volumes of Doppler signals, then it merges them together to obtain a panoramic volume dataset of the full scanned area. This technology can also be used for the fusion imaging between a 3D Panoramic US dataset and a second imaging modality as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT).«


Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Biosignal Interpretation (BSI2012)
M M Laganà, L Forzoni, S D'Onofrio, S De Beni, A Barberio, G Baselli and P Cecconi

»The interest about the cerebral venous system has recently grown attention mainly due to the definition of the Chronic Cerebro-spinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) syndrome. Examining a patient for CCSVI criteria, intracranial veins and sinuses are insonated from a new transcranial (TC) ultrasound (US) window, i.e. at the level of the condyloid bone of the mandible. The present work describes the fusion of US Pulsed Wave Doppler (PWD) and MRI, during the targeting of the Basal Vein of Rosenthal (BVR) and the Superior Petrosal Sinus (SPS), using Virtual Navigator (VN).«


Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference Biomedical Engineering (BioMed 2012)
Leonardo Forzoni, Sara D'Onofrio, Stefano De Beni, Maria Marcella Laganà, David Skoloudik, Giuseppe Baselli and Pietro Cecconi

»The interest in fusion imaging technology for transcranial application, that is the registration of Echo-color Doppler Ultrasound (ECD) and a second 3D imaging modality, e.g. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT), has recently grown thanks to studies of both arterial system and venous system. In addition the definition of a new ultrasound (US) cranial windows for the brain morphology and hemodynamic has given further attention to the topic. The present work analyses the registration procedure between US and a 3D imaging modality for transcranial application (CT for in vitro tests and MRI for in vivo applications).«.